The Elkhorn Instructional Model is represented by two visuals that highlight our instructional practices.
These components should be a purposeful and explicit part of every lesson.
|Learning Activation||A very brief activity to focus students’ attention on the lesson’s learning goals.|
|Learning Goal(s)||A statement describing what students should know and be able to do at the conclusion of the lesson.|
|Formative Assessment||Minute-by-minute check for understanding centered around each student’s knowledge of the learning goal(s).|
|Closure||An activity to close the lesson and allow students to reflect on their learning.|
Gradual release is a progression in which teachers gradually do less of the work and students gradually assume increased responsibility. It is important and necessary that students experience all four phases of learning when encountering new content; however, they may not encounter all phases every day and the phases may be presented recursively or in different order. Gradual release may occur over a day, a week , or a month.
“I do it.”
|During focused instruction the teacher maintains the majority of the responsibility in this phase of the learning process. It is important for the teacher to clearly communicate the learning goals with students, establish a clear purpose and provide examples and modeling to allow students to understand what it means to be successful.|
“We do it.”
|During guided Instruction the teacher uses questions, prompts, cues and additional modeling to help students better understand the learning goal. Teachers are gathering information about student understanding through formative assessment strategies to understand where students are in their learning and determine next instructional steps.|
“You do it together.”
|Collaborative learning provides students with the opportunity to consolidate their understanding, apply what they already know to new situations and engage in a review of previous knowledge.|
“You do it alone.”
|Through independent learning students assume greater responsibility and are given opportunities to demonstrate evidence of their learning in new situations. Independence is the ultimate goal of instruction.|
The first visual best represents the ultimate goal of independent learning for all students. It shows that much of the responsibility begins with the teacher and gradually shifts to the student as learning occurs.
The second visual shows the recursiveness of the teaching and learning process. Teachers and students move through the phases of learning fluidly with the learning goal as the focus of each learning activity.
Fisher, Douglas, and Nancy Frey. Better Learning through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2008. Print.
Hunter, Robin, and Madeline C. Hunter. Madeline Hunter’s Mastery Teaching: Increasing Instructional Effectiveness in Elementary and Secondary Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2004. Print.
Marzano, Robert J., Tina Boogren, Tammy Heflebower, Jessica Kanold-McIntyre, and Debra Pickering. Becoming a Reflective Teacher. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory, 2012. Print.